AK issue n.20 - Fall 2005

Articles - Abstract

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EDITOR'S NOTE

Over 40 years have passed since the discovery of applied kinesiology (AK) by George Goodheart, DC, and both he and the International College of Applied Kinesiology are still going strong. The fact that most individuals associated with AK remain focused and committed is a testament to the power of AK principles.
The International Journal of Applied Kinesiology and Kinesiologic Medicine has also reached a milestone of sorts in that this is our 20th issue printed since our inception in 1998. I'm honored to have been a part of the Journal and especially to have witnessed many memorable events in the world of kinesiologic medicine, such as the overflowing ICAK Sports Symposiums, large regional meetings, seeing Dr Goodheart featured in TIME Magazine, having almost every ICAK chapter subscribe to our journal, being indexed in scientific databases such as Cinahl Information Systems, having subscribers from all over the world, having the exclusive honor to feature eight-time Olympic Gold medalist swimmer, Jenny Thompson; three-time Olympic and world champion skier, Deborah Compagnoni; the world's top ranked soccer team, AC Milan; baseball World Series participant, Cleveland Indians; prominent researchers and practitioners, David Leaf, Daniel Duffy, Walter Schmitt, Phil Maffetone, David Walther, Fred Carrick, Glenn Doman, John Diamond, and Janet Travell, and so much more.
When we introduced our publication in 1998, we had the brash idea that our Journal would be the premier publication in the field of kinesiology in the world and serve to spread the word of kinesiologic medicine and unite the kinesiologies. From the start we faced several monumental challenges. The sheer scope of promoting the journal and getting it into the hands of every kinesiologist on the planet, flying all over the world to meet with the leaders in this field, the incredible costs of printing in the highest quality possible, and most of all, trying to stay above the political games played by those who seem to have nothing better to do. Our mission has had to evolve with the times but one thing is for sure, we are here to stay.
We at the AK Journal would also like to thank our Managing Editor, Erin McCloskey for the past three years she has collaborated with us. Being an experienced editor, Erin gave us the professional credibility we needed in our growth. Erin is moving from Italy to North America and we wish her all the best.
Till then I leave you with a quote not based on kinesiology but can be applied to all of us who are cruising the world of kinesiologic medicine together. It comes from Jane Gibb who lost her battle with cancer in February, a fellow Caribbean cruiser of my sister and writer and illustrator who often contributed articles to the Caribbean Company, a wonderful newsletter for Caribbean cruisers:
"The up sides to cruising are many. Glorious weather. Living barefoot and scantly clad. Coral beaches, mountainous islands, rainforests, crystal water, fish you can hand feed. The friendship of fellow cruisers who'll help with a problem, party spontaneously or just leave you alone. A medley of life above and under the water. Over all that, the independence to order our own lives and be prepared to take the consequences. Cruise on."


RELIABILITY OF THE KINESIOLOGIC OCCLUSAL POSITION

By Ae-Lee Chung DDS, MSD, PhD
Eui-Jun Shin DDS
Ill-Jun Yoo DDS
Ki-Suk Kim DDS, MSD, PhD

ABSTRACT
It has been a clinical observation for many years that patients with proper occlusions have greater endurance and perform better than those with malocclusions. The finding that the condition of the muscles of the jaw and the occlusion of the teeth can affect player performance has been reported. Dental kinesiology offers a study of the motions, structures, and functions of the jaw, tongue, and hyoid muscles and the impact that these dynamics have on both systemic and dental health. A double-blind study was performed to determine whether a lack of knowledge concerning expected results on the part of the subject or the examiner would have an effect on the results. The results seem to indicate the need for extensive studies to validate applied kinesiology as a health science. The purpose of this study was to obtain objective reliability indicating a correlation of body muscular strength to the kinesiologic occlusal position.
Key words: dental kinesiology, kinesiologic occlusal position, kineologic test, temporomandibular joint disorder

INTRODUCTION
It has been a clinical observation for many years that patients with proper occlusions have greater endurance and perform better than those with malocclusions (1,2). The finding that the condition of the muscles of the jaw and the occlusion of the teeth can affect player performance has been reported by Stenger (3). For a while, it has been claimed that repositioning the mandible will increase strength, particularly during athletic performance (3,4,5,6). Oral appliances increasing the vertical dimension have been described as increasing strength of subjects with normal occlusion and of persons with posterior bite collapse and malocclusion (3). It has been shown that repositioning the mandible with its condyles reduces stress placed on the spine by muscles and therefore tension, stress, and deformity on the body is also reduced (3,7,8,9). The role of adequate occlusal support in allowing the orofacial muscles to be free from spasm is an essential element of oral physiology (10,11,12). However, the relationship of such bite support to muscles outside the face and neck (arms, legs, abdomen, and back) seems to be a concept not yet generally recognized by the dental and medical profession at large.
Kinesiology is concerned with the dynamics of muscle function and the impact of muscular tonicity upon the structural components of the body. Dental kinesiology offers a study of the motions, structures, and functions of the jaw, tongue, and hyoid muscles, and the impact that these dynamics have on both systemic and dental health. Physicians, physical therapists, and kinesiologists have tested muscles as part of their evaluation for many years. This is an accepted method of determining relative changes of muscle strength (13). Various authors have noted the apparent effectiveness of applied kinesiology techniques, both in lecture demonstrations and in the literature (1,2,3,11). A double-blind study was performed to determine whether a lack of knowledge concerning expected results on the part of the subject or the examiner would have an effect on the results. The results seem to indicate the need for extensive studies to validate or repudiate applied kinesiology as a health science (14).
The purpose of this study was to investigate an individual optimal occlusal position using a kinesiologic test (kinesiologic occlusal position) and to obtain an objective reliability indicating a correlation of body muscular strength to the kinesiologic occlusal position (KP).

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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
This study was performed to obtain objective reliability of applied kinesiology tests indicating a correlation of body muscular strength to the kinesiologic occlusal position. The deltoid muscle was selected in an attempt to duplicate a current kinesiology test. All subjects were examined by two examiners at a time. This examination was repeated three days later. The results are as follows:
1. There were significant correlations between the measurements investigated on different days using the kinesiology test in centric occlusion, although there were differences between the two examiners.
2. There were significant correlations between the measurements investigated on different days and between the measurements obtained by two examiners using the kinesiolology test in kinesiologic occlusal position.
3. There was also a significant correlation for the occlusal change in the study between centric occlusion and kinesiologic occlusal position.
Conclusively, it is believed that the applied kinesiology test used in this study would be useful to locate the kinesiologic occlusal position for the fabrication of an oral appliance to treat temporomandibular joint disorders. Further studies, however, should be required to confirm that this kinesiologic occlusal position obtained from the examination of body muscular strength is really effective to treat the TM disorders.


ICAK 2005 Research Paper of the Year
APPLIED KINESIOLOGY AND PROPRIOCEPTION: A NON-INVASIVE APPROACH TO EQUILIBRIUM AND BALANCE DISORDERS

By Scott Cuthbert, DC

PART TWO OF TWO
Proprioceptive Testing in Applied Kinesiology, con't.

The most commonly employed methods for evaluation of the cerebellum and the vestibular system rely on the contribution of the body's proprioceptors for eliciting the equilibrium reactions that help maintain balance. Methods used to test the integrity of the vestibular, equilibrium, ocular, mechanoreceptor, and kinesthetic systems (all connected to the integrative function of the cerebellum) indicate the role that these systems are believed to assume in total body function.
The inseparability of proprioceptive and somatic functions has already been discussed (see AK Journal #19). In addition to overt manifestations of proprioceptive imbalances, the AK method of proprioceptive testing is sensitive to the presence of abnormalities in somatic functions that are commonly undetected by the usual neurological evaluation. The existence of factors such as: fine aberrations in mobility; impaired ability to converge the eyes at near point, with or without the presence of frank concomitant strabismus or nystagmus; mixed dominance; one-leg standing imbalance with visual righting reflexes removed; Hautant's test; tests of cerebellar function; gait testing and nutritional deficiencies (phosphatase) that affect proprioceptor receptor function, identify the vulnerability of the individual to stress in environmental situations and postural challenges, usually considered to be routine for most people.
Owing to the importance of proprioception to the overall function of the human organism, direct clinical measurement of this factor in our patient's functional ensemble is very desirable. Before measurements can be meaningful, they must be properly directed; the identification of something that has objective or physical reality and distinctness is even more important than quantification.

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