The International Journal of Applied Kinesiology and Kinesiologic Medicine is now indexed in the Cinahl Database and cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature (see Internet Websites of Interest on the next page). What this means is that applied kinesiology research and information is now more readily available to a vast audience interested in healthcare information. More importantly, anyone can now immediately receive any article from the past 18 issues of AK Journal published to date through Cinahl.
In this issue, we are happy to have published "Applied Kinesiology and Proprioception, a non-invasive approach to equilibrium and balance disorders", written by award-winning author, Scott Cuthbert, DC, from the United States. This article focuses on proprioceptive communication within the nervous system and expands the concept that a breakdown in communication may have a role to play in dysfunction and disease. Part of his discussion focuses on the traditional chiropractic hypothesis that irritation and dysfunction within the somatic structures of the body could be a contributing factor to neural "confusion" and thus cause homeostatic imbalances and physiological disorganization. He then goes on to demonstrate how this can be addressed using kinesiologic procedures.
Monika Wagner-Koch, MD, from Germany has also contributed an excellent article on the often overlooked importance of the hyoid bone and its relationship within the cranial, cervical, and thoracic movement chain.
From the other part of the world, Eric Pierotti, DC, DO, from Australia has presented an excellent scientific article on the relevance of T-lymphocytes in the health of the human body and how this can be addressed using manual muscle testing as taught in applied kinesiology.
We also would like to thank everyone who has contributed to support our journal and look forward to celebrating our 20th issue and 8th year of success. We hope to surprise you with some great news in our next issue!
APPLIED KINESIOLOGY AND PROPRIOCEPTION
A NON-INVASIVE APPROACH TO EQUILIBRIUM AND BALANCE DISORDERS
By Scott Cuthbert, DC
Proprioception, equilibrium, and balance are at the core of human functioning. It is the first system to be developed in utero and is myelinated at birth, providing the fetus with a sense of direction and orientation inside the womb. It is in place at the very beginning of human life in order to help cope with the problem of gravity, which we will encounter in its full force when we are born, and this problem with gravity will not cease to challenge us until we die.
The term proprioception was derived by Sherrington (1906) from the Latin proprius to refer to the organism's perception of sensations that originate in receptors that are stimulated by it's own movement. Sherrington identified the muscle spindles, mechanoreceptors in joints, and vestibular receptors as the primary sources of proprioceptive inputs (1). The mechanoreceptors feed into the nervous system information about movement, tension, and pressure. The mechanoreceptors are present in all vertebrates and in all tissues in which active or passive movements occur. These include the skeletal muscles, bones, joints, ligaments, and tendons and their associated capsules and sheaths, the skin, the internal ear, the eyes, the digestive tract, and the respiratory, cardiovascular, and genitourinary systems.
In general, mobility involves skeletal muscle and bone to provide the power and fulcrum; metabolic processes to provide energy for power; blood circulation to distribute the energy source; external and internal respiratory processes to support metabolism; and visual, vestibular, kinesthetic, proprioceptive, auditory, and olfactory senses to provide information as to where the organism is to go and how things are going when the organism is in motion. The applied kinesiology (AK) chiropractic method provides numerous methods for the diagnosis and treatment in each of these specific areas of body function.
Body posture and balance can be adversely influenced by dysfunctions affecting the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, the eyes, the ears, and the musculoskeletal system where proprioceptor and mechanoreceptor sensory organs lie. Defects in any of these tissues can lead to diminished postural function and increased instability and eventually to trauma from falling. There is evidence that multiple factors can adversely affect the postural mechanism and that these factors are cumulative (2). One of the causes of the chiropractic subluxation may be found in faulty proprioceptive mechanisms in our patients.
This paper focuses on proprioceptive communication within the nervous system and expands the concept that a breakdown in communication may have a role to play in dysfunction and disease. Part of this discussion will be the traditional chiropractic hypothesis that irritation and dysfunction within the somatic structures (and other soft tissues) of the body might be a contributory factor to neural "confusion" and hence homeostatic imbalance and physiological disorganization.
HYOID MUSCLES AND CRANIOCERVICAL LESIONS
By Monika Wagner-Koch, MD
The hyoid bone is linked to the most important elements in the cranial, cervical, and thoracal movement chain by ligaments, muscles, fascia, and neurological connections. Because of the manifold proprioceptive afferences, ie, from the upper cervical column, the base of the skull, the joint of the jaw, and the upper entrance to the thorax, the hyoid bone plays an important role in the neurological coordination of these structural systems. This study will examine the reciprocal action between the hyoid bone and the disfunction of its neighboring structures. Whether or not treatment of the hyoidal muscles or respectively the surrounding fascia can lead to the simultaneous improvement of the neighboring lesions will be evaluated with the help of applied kinesiology (AK).
In a group of 13 patients a positive challenge of the hyoid bone was found as an indication for a muscular imbalance of the hyoid muscle system. With AK, each patient was found to have more than one dysfunction at the same time in the region of the cranial sutures, the occipitocervical junction, the sternoclavicular joint, and the jaw musculature. This result is not surprising considering the manifold connections between the hyoid bone and the examined structures. It is astonishing that by treating the muscle spindle cells of the dysfunctional hyoid muscle system alone, more than half of the multitude cranial and cervical lesions were successfully treated. Due to the relatively small case number a statistical evaluation of the results is not possible. But by the treatment of dysfunctional hyoid muscular system at the beginning of therapy a definite normalization tendency was seen in all examined cranial and cervical lesions. Further examinations are needed for this subject.
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: UNDERSTANDING T-HELPER CELLS
By Eric Pierotti DC, DO, ChD
The relevance of T-lymphocytes in the maintenance of health and disease has been studied and well understood for some period of time. The unique balance of their various subsets and subsequent cytokine secretions is an accurate indicator of the immune system's response to foreign and/or domestic cells that can have both a good and adverse effect on the body. This paper will focus not on only a better understanding the role of these lymphocytes (Th1-Th2) but also to introduce a new finding of bilateral muscle inhibition related to excess secretion of these lymphocytes using manual muscle testing as taught in applied kinesiology (AK).
The immune system is an intricate collection of cells and organs that has evolved over millions of years and whose complex interactions form an efficient system that under normal circumstances is usually able to protect the body from foreign invaders and its own altered or mutant cells. This system, although operating throughout the body, is organized into specific structures that are classified as central lymphoid tissue, such as bone marrow and the thymus, and peripheral lymphoid tissue, which include lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (Figure 1).
These organs produce specialized cells that comprise the immune system such as: lymphocytes, B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages.
The immune system can be divided into two functionally distinct components, which more recent studies have discovered are in no way isolated but are involved in a complex and constant dialogue. These are the Innate or Non-Adaptive (Self) and the Acquired or Adaptive (Non-Self) elements. In order for the body to distinguish "Self" from "Non-Self" almost every cell has been built with a specific identification (Self) tag known as a Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Cells carrying an antigen or a Non-Self tag are identified and help ensure that the immune system does not accidentally try to harm itself.
The T-lymphocyte is regarded as one of the most important parts of the immune system and the control centre for both the Self and Non-Self systems. Their role in directly destroying both infected cells as well as altered or malignant cells is vital to health and well being. Their production of various cytokines with an array of specific surface molecules is critical for the control of all other immune functions. As AIDS demonstrates, the destruction of T-helper cells results in the total collapse of the immune system (1). However, it is becoming more evident that a delicate balance between T-cells and B-cells is vital to a healthy immune system and homeostasis.